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Reece-Stremtan S, Campos M, Kokajko L. ABM Clinical Protocol #15: Analgesia and Anaesthesia for the Breastfeeding Mother, Revised 2017. Breastfeeding Medicine 2017; 12(9)
Mitchell J et al. Guideline on anaesthesia and sedation in breastfeeding women 2020. Anaesthesia August 2020.
SPANZA Advisory on Tramadol – use of tramadol during breastfeeding and in the neonate. June 2017. http://www.anzca.edu.au/documents/policy_spanza-tramadol_20170624.pdf
Medsafe Tramadol & Breastfeeding: https://www.medsafe.govt.nz/safety/EWS/2018/Tramadol.asp
Palmer G et al. Tramadol, breastfeeding and safety in the newborn. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2018; 103(12): 1110-3
National Women's Breastfeeding after IV contrast: https://nationalwomenshealth.adhb.govt.nz/assets/Womens-health/Documents/Policies-and-guidelines/Breastfeeding-after-IV-Administration-of-Contrast-Media-.pdf
Medsafe lactation articles: https://www.medsafe.govt.nz/Profs/PUarticles/lactation.htm
Mathew J. Effect of maternal antibiotics on breastfeeding infants. BMJ 2004; 80: 196-200
Wanderer J & Rathmell J. Anaesthesia and Breastfeeding: more often than not they are compatible. Anaesthesiology 2017: A15. https://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2654616
Cobb B et al. Breastfeeding after Anesthesia: A Review for Anesthesia Providers Regarding the Transfer of Medications into Breast Milk. Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine 2015; 1(2): 1-7
American Society of Anaesthesiologists breastfeeding and anaesthesia: https://www.asahq.org/standards-and-guidelines/statement-on-resuming-breastfeeding-after-anesthesia?fbclid=IwAR2qURgGxvsWXuyBi5dkRNu3hFF7on-7A7-uMa9GC9gmk4yFnRpBbPwDkCg
Odom E et al. Reasons for Earlier Than Desired Cessation of Breastfeeding. Pediatrics 2013;131(3): e726–e732.
Hale's Medications & Mothers' Milk: https://www.halesmeds.com/
Infant Risk: https://www.infantrisk.com/
OAA Anaesthesia and Breastfeeding: https://www.labourpains.com/assets/_managed/cms/files/Anaesthesia_in_breastfeeding_mothers_V4.pdf
Every effort has been made to ensure the information on this page is accurate and up to date. However, there is no substitute for individualised medical advice so for any specific queries or concerns please contact your health care team.
If you notice any errors or omissions on this page please feel free to contact us via the above email address.