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This page has been endorsed by:

National Obstetric Anaesthetists (NOA)

All organisations listed above recommend discussing any questions or concerns with the health professionals who are caring for you.


Reece-Stremtan S, Campos M, Kokajko L.  ABM Clinical Protocol #15: Analgesia and Anaesthesia for the Breastfeeding Mother, Revised 2017.  Breastfeeding Medicine 2017; 12(9)

Mitchell J et al.  Guideline on anaesthesia and sedation in breastfeeding women 2020.  Anaesthesia August 2020.

SPANZA Advisory on Tramadol – use of tramadol during breastfeeding and in the neonate.  June 2017.

Medsafe Tramadol & Breastfeeding:

Palmer G et al.  Tramadol, breastfeeding and safety in the newborn.  Archives of Disease in Childhood 2018; 103(12): 1110-3

National Women's Breastfeeding after IV contrast:

Medsafe lactation articles:

Mathew J.  Effect of maternal antibiotics on breastfeeding infants.  BMJ 2004; 80: 196-200

Wanderer J & Rathmell J.  Anaesthesia and Breastfeeding: more often than not they are compatible.  Anaesthesiology 2017: A15.

Cobb B et al.  Breastfeeding after Anesthesia: A Review for Anesthesia Providers Regarding the Transfer of Medications into Breast Milk.  Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine 2015; 1(2): 1-7

American Society of Anaesthesiologists breastfeeding and anaesthesia:


Odom E et al.  Reasons for Earlier Than Desired Cessation of Breastfeeding.  Pediatrics 2013;131(3): e726–e732.

Hale's Medications & Mothers' Milk:

Infant Risk:

OAA Anaesthesia and Breastfeeding:


Every effort has been made to ensure the information on this page is accurate and up to date.  However, there is no substitute for individualised medical advice so for any specific queries or concerns please contact your health care team.

If you notice any errors or omissions on this page please feel free to contact us via the above email address.

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